AMERICAN MANGALITSA BREED STANDARDS
THE MANGALITSA AN OLD LARD BREED
The Mangalitsa pig is an old lard type breed of medium body size. It is distinguished by its rich and curly coat which is most prominent during the colder season. The 3 basic breed colorations are:
Blonde, Red and Swallow Belly (black with a white belly). A combination of these 3 colors yields a wide variety of colors, but they all should have the typical Mangalitsa breed characteristics in common.
- A short, deep body with a fine yet very strong skeleton/bone structure
- Straight or slightly curved back
- The groin (ham) is flat, not rounded as it is with meat breeds
- Head is medium long, ears are large and tip forward at older age.
- Ears are 2/3 of the length of the nose and form a straight line with the snout
- Ears of the piglets are mostly short and often upright
- Eyes are brown
- The eyelashes, eyebrows, nose, claws, nipples and all natural body-openings are always black
- The root of the tail is characteristically thick and the tip of tail-tassel is also always black
- The skin under the fur is greyish-black. Young piglets or animals that are kept inside often show a lighter skin on the belly. When kept outside the skin color should turn darker
- The number of nipples is 10 to max 12. Max 6 on each side
- On the lower edge of the ear is a bright spot (an inch in diameter), the so-called “Wellmann spot“ which is typical for all Mangalitsa pigs
- The piglets of the breed are mostly striped (Some piglets will not show stripes or only a slight coloration. The stripes disappear usually between 1 – 12 weeks)
- Seasonal molting of the hair in summer is typical for the breed
UNDESIREABLE TRAITS IN MANGALITSA PIGS
- Light or pink color of the belly (when older than 16 weeks and kept outside)
- Too fine or too rough bristles /hair
- Too long, straight hair that is dark colored on the back (Razorback) of the pure blonde color and pure red color Mangalitsa
- Too small upright or too large hanging ears of animals older than 12 months
- Too flat feet, X shaped front legs and too short front legs
TRAITS FORBIDDEN IN MANGALITSA BREED
- Pink spots on the belly, legs, nose
- Black or brown spots
- Un-pigmented body openings
- Yellow or yellow striped claws
- Pink nipples
- More than 12 nipples
- Pure white tails, without the black end tassel
- Pink/white eyelashes or eyebrows
DESIRABLE BODY MEASUREMENTS AND PHENOTYPE
The Mangalitsa breed is a very old breed and does not show a uniform appearance as do most modern pig breeds. Because of this, the shape of the ears, snout and body can vary in the phenotype appearance of the breed. The breed is of medium body size.
- Measurements are from a 3 year old animal of average size and weight.
- Wither height boars at least: 31,5 – 43,3 inch ( 80 – 110 cm)
- Wither height sows at least: 29,1 – 35,4 inch (74 – 90 cm)
- Body length (behind ear till tail) boar at least: 47,2 inch (120 cm)
- Body length (behind ear till tail) sow at least: 45,3 inch (115 cm)
- Boar weight 330,7 – 485 lbs (150 – 220 kg)
- Sow weight 308,6 – 396,8 lbs (140 – 180 kg)
Pigs that weigh 330 lbs have an average of 60% fat / 40% meat. When they gain more weight, the % of fat increases up to 70%.
The Mangalitsa pig is the best lard producing pig breed in existence. This attribute is what made it famous and valuable in the early 1900.
Older intact males (boars) of 4 years or older, can easily reach 500 lbs.
BOARS AND SOWS
Boars and gilts reach maturity at 12-14 months. BUT, be forewarned that they can get pregnant and reproduce at 4 months. Thus, it is vital that you separate the gilts from all intact males at 14 weeks of age to prevent teenage pregnancy!
Lean Mangalitsa at 12 months weigh 154 – 176 lbs (70 – 80 kg), at age of 24 months 176 – 220 lbs (80 – 100 kg),
Fattened Mangalitsa at 12 months weigh 330 lbs (150 kg), at older age the Mangalitsa can reach a weight of 440 – 661 lbs (200 – 300 kg.)
Reference: Arche Austria – Austrian Mangalitsa Herdbook
Newborn piglets have a weight between 1.32 – 2.2 lbs (600 – 1,000 grams), reaching 13.2 – 17.6 lbs (6-8 kg) in 7-8 weeks when on a good diet (16 – 18% protein). They develop more slowly than modern pig species thus it is very important to provide feed for them that fits their needs. Many foods like (spent grains) are nothing other than a filler for them. Piglets can’t digest these kinds of feed and will not thrive.
BOARS SHOWING EXCELLENT PHENOTYPE
Boars with desirable phenotype: Blonde, Swallow Belly & Red Mangalitsa breeding boars with correct legs and feet and good back and belly lines. These boars are in good body condition; not too fat or too lean.
SOWS SHOWING EXCELLENT PHENOTYPE
Sows with desirable phenotype: Blonde, Swallow Belly & Red Mangalitsa breeding sows with correct legs and feet and good back and belly lines. Good body condition, not too fat or too lean.
EXAMPLES OF MANGALITSAS SHOWING GOOD CONDITION AND PHENOTYPE
USING BODY STRUCTURE TO CHOOSE BREEDING STOCK
Desirable body structure in breeding pigs (yellow) and undesirable body structures (white) are illustrated below. Good breed selection is ideally decided after an animal is 12 months or older as certain body structures appear only when the pig reaches maturity.
How to determine good and bad feet as well as leg structures in your pigs.